In the first part of this study, we have seen how the EU, in this case mainly the EC, acts when a member state violates EU law. It also summarised various theories that try to explain why some states infringe more often than others. However, none of these theories included the democratic quality of the countries concerned. Arguably, this is a shortcoming of the theoretical framework researchers have been using in the past. In the second section of the first part, the weakening of democratic quality in various countries was pointed out. Within the EU, this democratic backsliding affects Hungary and Poland in particular.
In this second part of the study, these two threads are brought together and examined whether a correlation between infringements of EU law and democratic quality can actually be established. It should be noted that we have only included data up to 2019 in our analysis, as the ongoing COVID-crisis will distort all current measurable data for the time being.